A summary of a paper published in Nutrition Research
EpiCor directly activated Natural Killer (NK) and B cells in an in vitro study of immunomodulating effects of EpiCor.
EpiCor reduced the formation of Reactive Oxygen Species in a laboratory assay and also appeared to affect the immune system signaling pathways.
The data show an overall anti-inflammatory effect in these cell lines.
This study evaluated the immunomodulating effects of EpiCor on human leukocytes in vitro. The selection of anti-inflammatory and lymphocyte activation assays was based on prior evidence for immunomodulating effects of EpiCor from workplace observations of unusually low incidence of sick days among employees at the parent company of Embria Health Sciences, LLC. Major findings include:
EpiCor significantly reduced production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils (P<0.005).
EpiCor treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) caused induction of the activation markers CD80 and CD86 on B lymphocytes, and CD69 and CD25 on CD3-CD56+ natural killer cells. These markers provide evidence that these types of immune cells are better able to respond to a challenge to the immune system. This induction was also seen on enriched populations of NK and B lymphocytes, suggesting a direct effect not dependent on bystander cells.
Co-culturing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with EpiCor and phytohemagglutinin resulted in the inhibition of phytohemagglutinin-induced T-cell proliferation and a reduction of interferon gamma (IFN-Y) production. This suggests a possible anti-inflammatory effect.
Fucoidan, a ligand for the homing molecule L-selectin (CD62L), is known to induce rapid up-regulation of several chemokine receptors on lymphocytes. EpiCor caused strong inhibition of Fucoidan-mediated expression of the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR9 on PBMC. This suggests rapid altering of signal transduction pathways, or a direct competition for cell surface receptors, with an end result being an altered sensitivity to chemotactic signals from tissue. This suggests possible anti-viral and anti-inflammatory effects.
These results provide further evidence that EpiCor possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity and induces direct activation and increased chemotactic awareness of lymphocyte subsets in vitro. This suggests further study of effects of EpiCor consumption on anti-viral defense mechanisms and antibody production.
Study conducted by:
NIS Labs, Klamath Falls, Oregon, and AIBMR Life Sciences Inc, Puyallup, Washington.
Jensen, G.S., Schauss. A.G., and Hart, A.N., (2007), An anti-inflammatory immunogen from yeast culture induces activation and alters chemokine receptor expression on human natural killer cells and B lymphocytes in vitro, Nutrition Research, v. 27, p. 327-335.